Resilience in the face of terrorism has been a major theme of the Queen's Christmas address.
Her Majesty paid tribute to the victims and survivors of terrorist attacks carried out in Britain this year.
"This Christmas, I think of London and Manchester, whose powerful identities shown through over the past twelve months in the face of appalling attacks."
Her Majesty said the attack on the Ariana Grande concert at the Manchester Arena, was particularly shocking as it targeted young people, and talked of meeting the survivors in hospital.
"I described that hospital visit as a privilege because the patients I met were an example to us all, showing extraordinary bravery and resilience."
She also paid tribute to the Grenfell Tower fire and to those affected by hurricanes in the Caribbean.
She also spoke of her 70th anniversary to Prince Philip, who this year retired from public life at the age of 95.
The speech marks the 60th time it has been televised, which the Queen noted as she spoke of the changing world.